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Table of contents
- Phys. Rev. Lett. , () - Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Induced by Quantum Monitoring
- Breaking the System
- The Solutions
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In this way, more companies can close the gap between the promise and the reality in benefits from computer-based systems. Recently, top management of a large paperboard manufacturer asked its information systems IS department for help in evaluating the trades made with other companies. Such trades involve the production and sale of one grade of paperboard to a competitor in return for a different grade that the other company can produce more efficiently.
Phys. Rev. Lett. , () - Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Induced by Quantum Monitoring
The ability to make a trade at the right time for the right product has major competitive implications, for it ensures that machines can be scheduled for optimal return while satisfying customer requirements for a broad range of products. They told us that unless we could convince the corporate systems planning group to change its priorities, we had a minimum three-year wait. Such long systems development lead times are not unusual. Priorities set by a corporate systems planning steering committee committed the IS staff to projects that would require several dozen man-years of effort to complete.
In this company, like most others, the bottlenecks result primarily from the length of time required to design, program, test, and implement complex computer-based systems and from the limited resources available to satisfy systems development demand. In the paperboard example, the three-year interval from initial request to implementation was made up of perhaps two years waiting in the queue and a year for developing the system.
Having limited resources, the typical IS department can develop only a few systems each year. This bottleneck in most organizations leaves demand unsatisfied for three years or more. Additional systems development work that probably never gets to the proposal stage because of the known delays may include systems that executives want, need, and can financially justify.
They may in fact be systems that provide the competitive edge necessary for the survival of the company. In response to this problem, many organizations have been turning to innovative methods for systems development. In this article we evaluate the three most promising innovations—the use of application software packages, prototype development, and user-developed systems. We propose a framework for evaluating systems development requests to help managers select the appropriate development strategy. Until recently, most systems development has followed a pattern Robert Benjamin described some 20 years ago.
In most companies, for each new system to be developed, the IS department assigns staff members to a project team to perform these actions in the sequence specified. These development projects have a common cost pattern. Typically about a quarter of the cost is incurred during the definition phase, in which the basic functions of the system and its costs and benefits are identified.
Breaking the System
At least one-half goes into the design phase, in which programs and procedures are written, tested, and documented. The remainder of the cost is incurred during implementation, in training users, switching over to the new system, and doing a postaudit of the project. The process is sometimes iterative, of course, and work of an earlier phase is expanded or revised because of later results.
These costs represent principally the use of expensive and skilled IS employees who are in short supply. A number of techniques can increase the efficiency and productivity of systems development staff, particularly during design.
Although many IS departments use a number of these procedures, the development bottleneck remains. The difficulty is that these techniques are tactical approaches within the traditional systems development strategy. When skilled IS professionals develop systems by studying user needs, tactical maneuvers to make the process of writing programs and procedures to satisfy those needs more efficiently are appropriate. Yet they are inadequate today, when the gap between the supply of IS professionals and the demand for their services continues to widen, when the need is for systems now, not three years from now, and when the IS department backlog is constantly growing.
A number of companies have turned to alternative strategies for systems development that abandon the traditional model and that are much more productive than tactical improvements alone.
tolsen.com.ua/images/494/7539-podenco-andaluz-caracter.php Because these are radically different, however, implementing them may require more attention from management than do tactical measures. The idea behind the application of package systems is to enable companies to leverage the manpower expended in systems development by using the same software at several installations.
The unit cost of each implementation varies with the number of installations. Moreover, the more often the system is installed, the greater the productivity of programmers.
The resulting economies of scale may reduce the unit cost of development to a small fraction of what it would have been had the system been custom built for a single user. The explosive growth of the companies that supply applications software demonstrates the effectiveness of this strategy.
These companies develop program packages that address any of a number of problem areas and market them at a fraction of the total development cost.
Industry observers predict that such companies will sell more than a million application software packages in the next ten years. Of the organizations using standard software, the U. Forest Service offers a good example of this approach. In such a case, the leverage effect of multiple-site installation extends beyond systems development to maintenance because many fewer man-hours are needed to make changes to one system installed in sites than to change different systems in those same locations. In most cases, however, the package does not fit perfectly.
A package implementation is not appropriate, or even possible, in many situations.
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Prototyping is another innovative systems development strategy that is useful in such situations. The prototype approach to systems development exploits the advance in computer technology itself, through powerful high-level software tools made practical by inexpensive hardware. The systems are then refined and modified as they are used, in a continuous process, until the fit between user and system is acceptable. In a study of the practice of prototyping, A. Milton Jenkins and J. David Naumann presented a model of information systems development using this approach see Exhibit II.
A major innovation in the second step of prototyping is the rapid development of a working system, usually within a few days.
This is accomplished through tools such as time-sharing computer systems, a data base management system DBMS with high-level query languages, generalized report writer packages, and libraries of modeling software. The third and fourth steps are repeated revisions of the earlier stages. As users gain experience with the system, they are better able to determine what it could and should be doing to meet their needs. The designer, working with the users, then alters the system accordingly. Spontaneous symmetry breaking SSB is responsible for structure formation in scenarios ranging from condensed matter to cosmology.
SSB is broadly understood in terms of perturbations to the Hamiltonian governing the dynamics or to the state of the system.
We study SSB due to quantum monitoring of a system via continuous quantum measurements. The acquisition of information during the measurement process induces a measurement backaction that seeds SSB. In this setting, by monitoring different observables, an observer can tailor the topology of the vacuum manifold, the pattern of symmetry breaking, and the nature of the resulting domains and topological defects.
Library subscriptions will be modified accordingly. This arrangement will initially last for two years, up to the end of From single spin to coarse-grained monitoring. The nature of the monitoring process determines the pattern of measurement-induced symmetry breaking, deciding the size of the domains, the distribution of the local magnetization, and the type of topological defects formed in the system.
Dynamics of symmetry breaking induced by monitoring of each spin for different measurement strengths. Monitoring-induced symmetry breaking for a slow quench. The nature of the monitoring process thus governs structure formation in the final state.
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